Reviewing the ADDIE Model
Instructional design (ID), also referred to as instructional system design (ISD), is the systematic process of analysing the need for instruction, designing effective content, developing training based upon sound instructional principles, implementing instruction by delivering it to learners, and evaluating the effects of the instruction. Although many instructional design models exist, they all contain the five basic elements: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE).
The purpose of the analysis phase is to tailor instruction to the needs of the learners and the organisation. The overall course effectiveness is highly dependent on a thorough analysis being carried out. The analysis phase of ISD can be considered the foundation upon which the rest of instruction is built. Even the most expensive interactive course will substantially fail without a solid analysis as its foundation.
The science of instructional design offers significant insights into how adults learn, as well as ways of structuring contact to facilitate learning. Instructional design is about sequencing contact, choosing between differing e-learning delivery methods such as: synchronous, asynchronous or blended learning and effectively integrating media. This process should produce a clear instructional plan.
Unlike the previous two phases of ISD, which incorporate significant amounts of educational theory, the development phase is a very practical one. In the development phase the team required to build the program are assembled. These include specialists in programming, project management, and graphic design. A choice is made about the interface and the authoring tool to be used and the subsequent program is then built.
The goal of the implementation phase is to deliver the e-learning to the client. However, all of the constituent parts must be in place before its delivery. These include establishing the necessary information technology infrastructure, building an e-learning support structure and establishing an internal marketing campaign.
The final stage in the ADDIE model is the evaluation. There are two types of evaluation: formative and summative. Formative evaluation takes place while e-learning is being created, and are used by instructional designers to ‘form’ the , course. Summative evaluation takes place after e-learning has been delivered to learners and are used by training managers, instructional designers and company decision makers to assess the effectiveness and impact of training. It is important to appreciate that the iterative nature of the model means that the instructional design is never truly complete.